The Universality of Incest Lloyd DeMause part four
The Universality of Incest part four
Journal of Psychohistory 19 (2) Winter 1991
describes graphic crimes of abuse
The bibliography in two parts
42. Recent bibliographic aids include Mary De Young, Incest: An Annotated Bibliography. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1905; Rick Rubin and Greg Byerly, Incest The Last Taboo: An Annotated Bibliography. Nell York: Garland, 1983; David Finkeihor, Child Sexual Abuse: New Theory and Research. New York: The Free Press, 1984; David Finkelhor, et at, A Sourcebook on Child Sexual Abuse. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1986; Melodye L. F. Dabney, Incest An Annotated Bibliography: Offenders, Victims, Families, Treatment Programs. Eugene, Oregon: M.L.F. Dabney, 1982; Benjamin Schlesinger, Sexual Abuse of Children: A Resource Guide and Annotated Bibliography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1982; William Parker, “Homosexuality in History: An Annotated Bibliography..” Journal of Homosexuality 6(1980/81): 191-210; Wayne R. Dynes, Homosexuality: A Research Guide. New York: Garland Publishing, 1987; William Parker, Homosexuality Bibliography. Second Supplement, l97&~982. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1985; Joan Scherer Brewer and Rod W. Wright, eds., Sex Research: Bibliography from the Institute for Sex Research. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1979; Vern L. Bullough, W. Dorr Legg. Barrett W. Elcano and James Kepner, eds., An Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality. Two Vols. New York: Garland, 1976; Thomas M. Homer, Homosexuality and the Judeo- Christian Tradition: An Annotated Biwiography. Metucleen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1981; Carolyn F. Wilson, Violence Against Women: An Annotated Bibliography. Boston: 0. K. Hall, 1981; Nancy Sahli, Women and Sexuality in America: A Bibliography. Boston: G. K. Hall Co., 1984; Urich Herrmann, Susan Renftle and Lutz Roth, Bibliographic zur Geschichte dir Xindheit, Jugend und Familie. Muenchen: Juventa Verlag, 1980; Florence Rush, The Best Kept Secret Sexual Abuse of Children. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Prentice:-Hall, 1980; Veal L. Bullough, Sexual Variance in society and History. Chicago University of Chicago Press, 1976; R. E. L. Masters, Patterns of Incest: A Psycho-Social Study of Incest Based on Clinical and Historic data. New York: Ace Books, 1970; Luciano P.R. Santiago, The Children of Oedipus: Brother-Sister Incest in Psychiatry, Literature, History, and Mythology. Roslyn Heights, N.Y.: Libra Publishers, 1973; Herbert Maisch, Incest. London: Deutsch, 1973; Parker Rossman, Sexual Experience Between Men and Boys: Exploring the Pederast Underground. New York: Association Press, 1976; Edward Brongersma, Das verfemie Geschlecht. Munich: Lichtenberg, 1970; John Crewdson, By Silence Betrayed: Sexual Abuse of Children in America. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1988; Judith Ennew, The Sexual Exploitation of Children, London: Polity Press, 1986; Jill F. Korbin, Ed., Child Abuse and Neglect Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981; Larry L. Constantine and Floyd M. Martinson, Eds., Children and Sex.. New Findings, New Perspectives. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1981; Joachirn S. Hobmanri, Ed., Paedophilie heute. Frankfrut am Main: Fos’nter, 1980; Thomas Marland Homer, Homosexuality and the Judeo-Christian Tradition: An Annotated Bibliography. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1981; Wolf Vogel, Berbotene Liebe: Paedophilie and strafende Gesellschaft. Regensburg: Roderer, 1981; Robin Lloyd, Boy Prostitution in America. New York: Vanguard Press, 1976; Gitta Sereny, The Invisible Children: Child Prostitution in America, West Germany and Great Britain. New York: Knopf, 1985; W. Arens, The Original Sin: Incest and Its Meaning. Oxford: Oxford Univershy Press, 1986.
43. Reviews of prevalence studies include Carolyn Swift, “Sex Between Adults and Children.” The Journal of Psychohistory 4(1977): 369-384; Diana F. H. Russell, The Secret Thauma: Incest in the Lives of Girls and Women. New York: Basic Books, 1986, pp.59-91; Stefanie Doyle Peters, Gail Elizabeth Wyatt and David Finkeihor, “Prevalence,” In David Finkeihor et al., A Sourcebook on Child Sexual Abuse. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1986, pp.15-55; and John Crewdson, By Silence Betrayed: Sexual Abuse of Children in America. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1988, pp.2441.
44. Susan Diesenhouse, “Child Abuse Victims Face System Made For Adults.” The New York Times, March 6, 1988, p. 26E.
45. Alfred C. Kinsey, Wardell B. Pomeroy, Clyde F, Martin and Paul H. Gebhard, Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co., 1953, p. 117; Kinse’y’s raw material is reanalyzed in John Gagnon, “Female Child Victims of Sex Offenders.” Social Problems 13(1965): 176-92.
46. Judson T. Landis, “Experiences of 500 Children with Adult’s Sexual Deviance.” Psychiatric Quarterly Supplement 30(1956): 91-109.
47. Stafanie Doyle Peters, Gail Elizabeth Wyatt and David Finkelbor, “Prevalence,” In David Finkdhor, et at, Eds., A Sourcebook on Child Sexual Abuse. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1986, pp.15-55; Gail Elizabeth Wyatt and Siefanie Doyle Peters, “Methodological Considerations in Research on the Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse.” Child Abuse and Neglect 10(1986): 241-51; and Gail Elizalteth Wyatt and Stefanie Doyle Peters, “Issues in the Definition of Child Sexual Abase in Prevalence Research.” Child Abuse a Neglect 10(1986): 231-9.
48. Gail Elizabeth Wyatt, “The Sexual Abuse of Afro-American and White Women in Childhood.” Child Abuse a Neglect 9(1985): 507-19; and Diana E. H. Russell, The Secret Trauma: Incest in the Lives of Girls and Women. New York: Basic Books, 1986.
49. Russell, The Secret Trauma, p.70.
50. Brenda J. Vander Mey, “The Sexual Victimization of Male Children: A Review of Previous Research.” Child Abuse a Neglect, 12(1988): 61-71.
51. Some authors think boys may be sexually abused as often as girls; the literature is reviewed by Kee MacFarlane, et al., Sexual Abuse of Young Children: Evaluation and Treatment. New York: The Gullford Press, 1986, pp.9-10; also see Robert L. Johnson and Diane K. Shrier, “Sexual Victimization of Boys: An Adolescent Medicine Clinic’s Experience.” Ms., Newark: University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, n.d. and Mic Hunter, Abused Boys: The Neglected Victims Of Sexual Abuse. Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath, 1990.
52. The evidence for the higher incidence of childhood sexual abuse in these populations is reviewed in Crewdson, By Silence’ Betrayed, p.208; Rush, The Best Kept Secret, p. 5; Adele Mayer, Sexual Abuse: Causes, Consequences and Treatment of Incestuous and Pedophilic Acts. Holmes Beach, Florida: Learning Publications, 1985, pp.64; M. Serrill, “Treating Sex Offenders in New Jersey.” Corrections 1(1974): 13-24; Mimi H. Silbert and Ayala M. Pines, “Early Sexual Exploitation as an Influence in Prostitution.” Social Work 28(1983): 285-9; Cathy Spatz Widom, “Does Violence Beset Violence? A Critical Examination of the Literature,” Psychological Bulletin 106(1989): 3-28; Elaine Carmen, Patricia Perri Rieker and Trudy Mills, “Victims of Violence and Psychiatric Illness,” American Journal of Psychiatry 141(1984): 378383.
53. Russell thinks her numbers are underestimated since 36 percent of the households in her study refused to be interviewed and these probably had higher vitimilation rates. See Diana Russell, lecture, May 17, 1988, Waukesha, Wisconsin, reported in Carol Poston and Karen Lison, Reclaiming Our Lives: Hope for Adult Survivors of Incest. Boston: Litfie, Brown and Co., 1989, p.259.
54. MacFarlane, Sexual Abuse of Young Children, p.7; Crewdson, By Silence Betrayed, p.162.
55. Robert Dube, “Sexual Abuse of Children Under 12 Years of Age: A Review of 511 Cases.” ChildAbused Neglect 12(1988): 313.
56. The first two factors, the higher-rate populations excluded from the studies and the Suppression of memories, only account for a few additional percentage points. The third factor, the higher rate for households refusing to participate in the studies, is in’. possible to quantify, so I have here not corrected for this fact. The fourth factor can, however, be quantified, since the recovery of repressed memories for an estimated 90 percent of the incidents prior to age five and for an estimated 35 percent of the in-cidents after age five would boost the overall rate by almost 50 percent. For a study which concludes that patients “who were abused early in childhood” were the most likely to suffer “massive repression” of memories, see Judith L. Herman and Emily Schatzow, “Recovery and Verification of Memories of Childhood Sexual Trauma.” Psychoanalytic Psychology 4(1987): 1-14. The figures I use, therefore, should be con-sidered conservative.
57. Russell, The Secret Trauma, p.35.
58. Herman and Schatzow, ‘Recovery and Verification,” pp.1-14. Other studies find even the ability of young children under five years of age to correctly remember traumatic events is “uncanny”; see Lenore Terr, “What Happens to Early Memories of Trauma? A Study of Twenty Children Under Age Five at the Time of Documented Traumatic Events.” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 27(1988): 96-104. Also see Crewdson, By Silence Betrayed, p.169.
59. John Leopold Weit, Instinctual Stimulation of Children: From Common Practice to Child Abuse. 2 Vols. Madison, Conn.: International Universities Press, 1989, These volumes are by far the best available on the Consequences of incest and other traumatic child abuse practices.
60. Russen, The Secret Thauma, p.101.
61. Ibid, p.100.
62. Ibid, p.216.
63. Alan Sroufe arid Mary Ward, “Seductive Behavior of Mothers of Toddlers: Occurrence, Correlates, and Family Origins.” Child Development 9(1980): 1222-29; CIare Havuessettum and Richard D. Knigman, “Sexualized Attention: Normal Interaction of Precursor to Sexual Abuse?” American Journal of Orthospychiatry 59(1989):23845.
64. J G. Jones, “Sexual Abuse of Children: Current Concepts.” American Journal of Diseases of Children 136(1982): 142-6.
65. As, for instance, in the case histories of Elizabeth Ward, Father-Daughter Rape. New
York: Grove Press, 1985.
66. David Finkeihor, Child Sexual Abuse: New Theory and Research. New York: Free Press, 1984; J. Michael Cupoli, “One Thousand Fifty-nine Children With a Chief Complaint of Sexual Abuse.” Child Abuse & Neglect. 12(1988): 158.
67. Ibid, p.160.
68. Gail Ryan, “Juvenile Sex Offenders: Development and Correction.” Child Abase & Neglect 11(1987): 385-95
69. E. Brown, T. Flanagan and M. McLeod, Eds. Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics-I983. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1984; A. Groth and C. Loredo, ‘Juvenile Sexual Offenders: Guidelines for Assessment.” International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 25(1981)31-39.
70. Russell, The Secret Trauma, p.388.
71. Mic Hunter, Abused Boys: The Neglected Victims of Sexual Abuse. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath, 1990; Mike Lew, Victims No Longer Men Recovering From Incest and Other Sexual Child Abuse. New York: Harper & Row, 1990, p.58.
73. Heary B. Bill and Richard S. Solomon. Child Maltreatment and Paternal Deprivation. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1986, p.59.
74. An excellent bibliographic review is contained in Charles W. Socarides, The Preoedipal Origin and Psychoanalytic Therapy of Sexual Perversion. Madison, Conn.: International Universities Press, 1988.
76. John Leopold Weil, Instinctual Stimulation of Children: From Common Practice to Child Abuse. Two Vols. Madison, Conn.: International Universities Press, 1989; Gail Elizabeth Wyatt and Gloria Johnson Powell, Eds., Lasting Effects of Child Sexual Abuse. Newbury Park, Cauf.: Sage, 1988; Brandt F. Steele, “Notes on the Lasting Effects of Early Child Abuse Throughout the Life Cycle.” Child Abuse & Neglect 10(1986): 283-91; Liz Tong, Kim Oates and Michael McDowell, “Personality Development Following Sexual Abuse.” Child Abuse & Neglect 11(1987): 37143; Alison Ftshman Gartner and John Gartner, “Borderline Pathology in Post-Incest Female Adolescents.” Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic 52(1988): 101-113; Anathony P. Mannariarino and Judith A. Cohen, “A Clinical-Demographic Study of Sexually Abused Children.” Child Abuse & Neglect 10(1986): 17-23; Wendy Maltz and Beverly Holman, Incest and Sexuality: A Guide to Understanding and Healing. Lexington.
77. 77. R. F. Badgley, Sexual Offenses Against Children. 2 Vol”. Ottawa: Canadian Government Publishing Center, 1984.
78. Stephen 0. Murray, Ed., Male Homosexuality in Central and South America. New York: GAU-NY. 1987.
79. Oscar Lewis, La Vida: A Puerto Rican Family in the Culture of Poverty San Juan and New York. New York: Vintage Books, 1965, p. xxvi.
80. E. N. Padilla, “An Agrarian Reform Sugar Community in Puerto Rico.” Doctoral dissertajon, Columbia University, 1951.
81. Romon Frendandez-Marina, “Brief Communications.” Psychiatry 24(l961): 79-82.
82. J. M. Carrier, “Mexican Male Bisexuality.” In F. Klein and T. Wolf, eds., Bisexualities: Themes and Research. New York Hayworth Press, 1985, pp.75-85.
83. Jean La Fontaine, Child Sexual Abuse. London: Polity Press, 1990; Crewdson, By Silence Betrayed, p.33; Jill E. Korbin, Ed., Child Abuse and Neglect Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981; Richard J. Gelles and Ake W. Edfeldt, “Violence Towards Children in the United States and Sweden.” ChildAbuse& Neglect 10(1986): 501-10; Patricia]. Mrzaek, Margaret A. Lynch, Ar-non Bentovim, “Sexual Abuse of Children in the United Kingdom.” Child Abuse & Neglect 7(1973): 147-53; Christopher J. Hobbs and Jane NI. Wynne, “Buggery in Childhood-A Common Syndrome of Child Abuse.” The Lancet, October 4, 1986, p.792-6; C. J. Hobbs and J. M. Wynne, “Sexual Abuse of English Boys and Girls: The Importance of Anal Examination.” Child Abuse & Neglect 13(1989): 195-210; Glenn D. Wilson and David N. Cox, The Child-Lovers: A Study of Pedophiles in Society. London: Peter Owen, 1983; also see bibliography in Dorothy P. Wells, Com-piler, Child Abuse: An Annotated Bibliography. Metuchen, N.J.: The Scarecrow Press, 1980.
84. Neil Elliott, Sensuality in Scandinavia. New York: Weybright and Talley, 1970; Swend Riemer, “A Research Note on Incest,” American Journal of Sociology 45(1940):
85. Jean S. La Fontaine, “Child Sexual Abuse and the Incest Taboo: Practical Problems and Theoretical Issues.” Man n.s. 23(1988): 1-18.
86. Wetriarer Newt Zeitung, October 13, 1988, p.1; Iris Galey, ‘Ich weinie nicht, als Vater sfarb. Bern: Zytglogge Verlag, 1988; see also infant t. issues 1988 to 1990.
87. enfant 1.6(1989): 10-11.
88. Personal communication from Karin Wellenkotter and Detlef Iterenawi of the Institute fuer Kindheit, Berlin.
89. Lloyd deMause, “The Evolution of Childhood.” In deMause. Ed.. The History of Childhood. New York: The Psychohistory Press, 1974, p.51; Lloyd deMause, “Appendix: On the Demography of Filicide.” In deMause, Foundations of
Psychohistory. New York: Creative Roots, 1982, pp. 117-121; Lloyd deMause, “The History of Childhood in Japan.” The Journal of Psychohistory 15(1987): 147-51.
90. Katherine Mayo, Mother India. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1927, pp.25-26; also see Mayo’s many subsequent books and other books written in response to hers, a bibliography of which can be found in Harry F. Field, After Mother India. New York:
Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1929; and David and Vera Mace. Marriage: East and West. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Co., 1959.
91. Mayo, Mother India, p.26
92. R. E. L. Masters, Patterns of Incest A Psycho-social Study of Incest, Based on Clinical and Historic Data. New York: Ace Books. 1970, pp.4647
93. Ganamath Obeyesekere, The Cult of the Goddess Pattini. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.
94. S. N. Rampal, Indian Women and Sex. New Delhi: Printoy, 1978, pp.69-71.
95. Ibid, p.71.
96. R. E. L. Masters, Patterns of Incest, pp.4647.
97. Manisha Roy, Bengali Women. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972, p.24.
99. K. M. Kapadia. Marriage and Family in India. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1966.
100. L. D. Sanglivi, “Inbreeding in India.” Eugenics Quarterly 13(1966): 291-301; P.5.5, Rao and S. G. lnbaraj, “Breeding Effects on Human Reproduction in Tamil Nadu of South India.” Annals of Human Genetics a41(1977): 87-98; A. K. Ohosh and P. P. Majumder, “Genetic Load in an Isolated Population of South India.” Human Genetics 51(1979): 203-8.
101. Ibid, pp. 110-13.
102. Ibid, p.24.
103. AlIen Edwards, The Cradle of Erotica. New York. The Julian Press, 1963, pp. 133-134, citing Dr. Jacobs: (non de plume), L ‘Ethnologie du Sens Genitale. Paris, 1935, a book I have been unable to locate.
104. S. N. Rampal, Indian Woman and Sex, p.69.
105. Ibid, p.23.
106. Katherine Mayo, Volume Two. London: Jonathan Cape, 1931, p.47.
107. Mayo, Mother India, p.25. Also see G. Morris Carstairs, The Twice-Born: A Study of a Community of High Caste Hindus. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1967; Shakuntala Devi, The World of Homosexuals. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House, 1977; Johann Jacob Meyer, Sexual Life in Ancient India: A Study of the Comparative History of Indian Culture. Two Vols. New York: Dutton, 1930.
108. Katherine Mayo, Slaves of the Gods. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1929, pp. 137-8
109. Kamalabai Deshpande, The Child in Ancient India. Poona: Arya Samskrti Press, 1930, p.193.
110. Patricia Jeffery, Frogs in a Well: Indian Women in Purdah. London: Zed Press, 1979.
111. Mayo, Mother India, p.112.
112. Johann Jakob Meyer, Sexual Life in Ancient India: A Study in the Comparative History of Indian Culture. Vol. 1. London: George Routledge & Sons, 1930, p.58.
113. A. K. Sur, Sex and Marriage in India: An Ethnohistorical Survey. Bombay: Allied Publisbers, 1973; I have adjusted 1921 census figures by 20 percent to allow for overstating of age, in accordance with evidence given in the census itself; see Harry F.Field, After Mother India. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1929, p.48-51. On the difficulty of enforcing child marriage laws in India, see David and Vera Mace. Marriage: East and West. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1959, pp. l90-201.
114. Eleanor F. Rathbone, Child Marriage: The Indian Minotaur. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1934, p.37; and Mayo, Volume Two, p.139.
115. Mayo, Volume Two, p.63.
116. Ibid, pp.68, 52-3.
117. Moni Nag, “Sex, Culture, and Human Fertility: India and the United States.” Current Anthropology 13(1972): 231-7; Wendy Doniger O’Raherty, Women, Androgynes, and Other Mythical Beasts. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1980; “Romance and a Little Rape.” Time, August 13, 1990, p.69.
118. Wendy Doniger O’Flaherty, Asceticism and Eroticism in the Mythology of Siva. London: Oxford University Press, 1973; Nigel Davies, The Rampant God: Eros Throughout the World. New York: William Morrow, 1984; Blair Justice and Rita Justice, The Broken Taboo: Sex in the Family. New York: Human Sciences Press, 1979, p.38; Main Denie’Iou, Les Quatre Sens da la Vie a l’Jnde Thaditionelle. Paris: Librairie AcadEmique Perrin, 1963.
119. Verrier EIwin, The Baiga. London: John Murray, 1939,
120. Ibid, p.193.
121. Verrier Elwin, The Muria and Their Ghotul Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1947, pp.322-439.
122. Ibid, p.358.
123. S.S. Shashi, Night Life of Indian Tribes. Delhi: Agarn Prakarltan, 1978, p.48.
124. Eiwin, Muria, p.340.
125. Ibid, pp.333-338.
126. Ibid, p.343.
127. Ibid, p.369.
128. Edgar Gregersen, Sexual Practices: The Story of Human Sexuality. New York: Franklin Watts, 1983.
129. Richard L. Currier, “Juvenile Sexuality in Global Perspective.” In Larry L. Constantine and Floyd M. Martinson, Eds., Children and Sex: New Findings, New Perspectives Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1981, p.18.
For more psychohistorical articles on child rearing go to http://www.psychohistory.com