The Universality of Incest Lloyd deMause part three
The Universality of Incest part three
Journal of Psychohistory 19 (2) Winter 1991
describes graphic crimes of abuse
The bibliography in two parts
1. James L. Peacock and A. Thomas Kirsch, The Human Direction: An Evolutionary Approach to Social and Cultural Anthropology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1970, p.100.
2. Alfred L. Kroeber, “Totem and Taboo in Retrospect.” American Journal of Sociology 55(1939): 446.
3. Warner Muensterberger, “On the Biopsychological Determinants of Social Life.” In Warner Muensterberger, ed., Man and His Culture: Psychoanalytic Anthropology After “Totem and Taboo.” London: Rapp & Whiting, 1969, p.35.
4. Emile Durkheim, Incest: The Nature and Origin of the Taboo. New York: Lyle Stuart,
1963 (1898); Edward Westermarck, The History of Human Marriage. London: Macmillan, 1921 (1894).
5. George Peter Murdock, Social Structure. New York: Macmillan Co., 1947, p.13.
6. Talcott Parson, cited in Blair Justice and Rita Justice, The Broken Taboo: Sex in the Family. New York: Human Sciences Press, 1979, p.37.
7. Leslie White, cited in ibid, p.36.
8. Claude Levi-Strauss, The Elementary Structures of Kinship. London: Eyne and Spottiswoode, 1969, p.41.
9. A historical survey of the huge literature on incest taboos can be obtained from Robin Fox, The Red Lamp of incest. New York: Button, 1980; W. Arens, The Original Sin: Incest and Its Meaning. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1936; and David H. Spain, “Incest Theory: Are There Three Aversions?” The Journal of Psychohistory 15(1988): 235-253. Arens alone is clear about the lack of study of incest itself.
10. John M. Goggin and William C. Sturtevant, “The Calusa: A Stratified, Nonagricultural Society (with Notes on Sibling Marriage).” In Ward H. Goodenough, Ed., Essays in Honor of George Peter Murdock. New York: Mcgraw Hill, 1964, pp.179-219.
11. J. R. Fox, “Sibling Incest.” British Journal of Sociology 13(1962): 128-150.
12. Barry D. Adam, “Age, Structure, and Sexuality: Reflections on the Anthropological Evidence on Homosexual Relations.” The Journal of Homosexuality 11(1985): 19-33; Bernard Sergent, Homosexuality in Greek Myth. Boston: Beacon Press, 1984 and L’homosexualite intiatique dans l’europe ancienne. Paris: Payot, 1986.
13. Anthony H. Manchest, “Incest and the Law.” In John M. Eekelacer and Sanford N. Katz, eds. Family Violence: An International and Interdisciplinary Study. Toronto: Butterworths, 1978, pp.487-92.
14. For overview or childhood history, see Lloyd deMause, Foundations of Psychohistory. New York: Psychohistory Press, 1982.
15. 15. J. G. Jones, “Sexual Abuse of Children: Current Concepts.” American Journal of Diseases of Children 136 (1982)142-146.
16. The seduction theory is best traced historically in Jean 0. Schimek, “Fact and Fantasy in the Seduction Theory: A Historical Review.” Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Assocition 35(1987): 937-65; Norman N. Holland, “Massonic Wrongs,” Amerkan Imago 46(1989): 329-352; Robert A. Paul, “Freud and the Seduction Theory: A Critical Examination of Masson’s The Assault on Truth.” The Journal of Psychoanalytic Anthropology 80985): 161-87; Zvi Lothane, “Love, Seduction, and Trauma.” Psychoanalytic Review 74 (1987): 83-105; Elaine Westerlund, ‘Freud on Sexual Trauma: An Historical Review of Seduction and Betrayal.” Psychology of Women Quarterly 10(1986): 297-309; and Richard B. Ulman and Doris Brothers, The Shattered Self A Psychoanalytic Study of Trauma. Hillsdale, N.J.: The Analytic Press, 1988, pp. 65-78; and Emanuel E. Garcia, “Freud’s Seduction Theory.” In Albert J. Solnit and Peter B. Neubauer, eds. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. Vol.42. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987. All, however, have their shortcomings, so it is suggested there is no substitute to reading Freud himself
17. Sigmund Freud, The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychologkal Works of Sig-mund Freud. “The Aetiology of Hysteria.” Vol.111, (1986). London: The Hogarth Press, 1955, p.204.
18. Freud, Standard Edition. “An Autobiographical Study.” Vol. XX, (1925). p.34.
19. Jeffrey Moussaleff Masson, The Assault on Truth. New York Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1984; Alice Miller, Thou Shalt Not &Aware: Society’s Betrayal of the Child. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1984.
20. Freud, Standard Edition. “On the History of the Psycho-analytic Movement.” Vol. XIV (1914), p.17.
21. Freud, Standard Edition. “Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality.” Vol. VII (1905). p.86.
22. Freud, Standard Edition. “Three Essays,” p. 148; “Introductory Lectures on Psycho~Analysis.” Vol. XVI (191&l7), p.370.
23. Freud, Standard Edition. “Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis.” Vol. XVI (191&17), p.370. It is true that Freud then went on to say that whether seduction had occurred in reality or in fantasy, “The outcome is the same, and up to the present we have not succeeded in pointing to any difference in the consequences, whether phantasy or reality has had the greater share in these events of childhood.” Ibid. Today a psychotherapist would say that it certainly makes a difference whether incest occurred in reality or not. It would be important, for instance, to know whether Freud’s father was or was not the “pervert” Freud called him-especially since, like most German children of his time he slept with his parents in infancy. The point here, however, isn’t whether Freud’s every clinical opinion is held today. It is only that Freud didn’t deny that real childhood seduction all too often occurred in his patients and in the society around him.
24. Sigmund Freud, The Origins of Psychoanalysis: Letters to Wilhelm Fliess, Drafts and Notes: 1887-1902. New York: Basic Books, 1954, p.220.
25. Karl Abraham, “The Experiencing of Sexual Traumas as a Form of Sexual Activity.” In Selected Papers of Karl Abraham. London: Hogarth Press, 1948. p. 48. Abraham’s blaming of the victim is particularly clear in his case of the woman who was raped by her uncle in “On the Significance of Sexual Traumas in Childhood for the Symptomatology of Dementia Praecox. “In Karl Abraham, Clinical Papers and Essays on Psycho-Analysis. New York: Basic Books, 1955, p.14.
26. This of course can only be ascertained for certain in the rare cases when the child analyst’s full clinical notes have been preserved; the best example is Melanie Klein, Narrative of A Child Analysis: The Conduct of the Psycho-Analysis of Children As Seen in the Treatment of a Ten Year Old Boy. New York: Basic Books, 1960, where Mrs. Klein reports regularly avoiding asking whether the boy’s reports of sucking his dog’s penis and having his own penis sucked might have been cover memories for real incest, despite the boy’s timid suggestion that “perhaps this had happened in the past with his brother.” (p. 93) Klein, like Anna Freud, felt real childhood sexual events of little importance compared to internal fantasy.
27. Bernard C. Glueck, Jr., “Early Sexual Experiences in Schizophrenia,” in Hugo 0. Beigel, Ed., Advances in Sex Research. New York: Harper & Row, 1963, pg. 253.
28. Judith L. Herman and Bessel A. van der Kolk, “Traumatic Antecedents of Borderline Personality Disorder.” In Bessel A. van der Kolk, Ed., Psychological Thauma. Washington D.C.: American Psychiatric Press, 1989, p.116.
29. Sandor Ferenczi, “Confusion of Tongues Between the Adult and Child.” Final Contributions to the Problems and Methods of Psycho-Analysis. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1980, p.162; Judith Dupont, Ed., The Clinical Diary of Sandor Ferened. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989.
30. Marie Bonaparte, Female Sexuality. New York: International Universities Press, 1953; Phyllis Greenacre, Trauma, Growth and Personality. New York: International Universities Press, 1950; Annie Reich, “Analysis of a Case of Brother-Sister Incest.” In Annie Reich, New York: International Universities Press, 1973, pp.288-311.
31. Joseph C. Rheingold, The Fear of Being a Woman: A Theory of Maternal Destruc-tiveness. Nell York: Grune & Stratton, 1964.
32. Robert Fliess, Symbol, Dream and Psychosis. New York: International Universities Press, 1973, p.212.
33. Miriam Williams, “Reconstruction of an Early Seduction and Its Aftereffects.” Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association. 35(1987): 145-1 63.
34. Judith Lewis Herman, J. Christopher Perry and Bessel A. van der Kolk, “Childhood Trauma in Borderline Personality Disorder.” American Journal of Psychiatry 146(1989): 494.
35. Joseph Peters, “Children Who Are Victims of Sexual Assault and the Psychology of Offenders,” American Journal of Psychotherapy 30(1976): 401.
36. Lawrence Z. Freedman, review of Jeffrey M. Masson, The Assault on Truth. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 36(1988): 187.
37. John Addington Symonds, Sexual Inversion. New York: Bell Publishing Company, 1984 (1928); J. Z. Eglinton, Greek Love. New York: Oliver Layton Press, 1964.
38. Allen Edwardes and R. E. L. Masters, The Cradle of Erotica. New York: The Julian Press, 1963, p.22.
39. Schultz’ keynote speech at the first national conference on sexual abuse of children is cited in Sam Janus, The Death of Innocence: How Our Children Are Endangered by the New Sexual Freedom. New York: William Morrow & Co., 1981, p.126; see also Leroy G. Schulti, Ed., The Sexual Victimology of Youth. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1980; and LeRoy G. Schultz “Child Sexual Abuse in Historical Perspective.” Journal of Social Work and Human Sexuality 1(1982): 21-35.
Other current scholarly works advocating pedophilia include Daniel Tsand, Ed., The Age Taboo: Gay Male Sexuality, Power and Consent. London: Gay Men’s Press, 1981; Torn O’Carroll, Paedophilia: The Radical Case. London: Peter Owen, 1980; Edward Brongersma, Das verfemte Geschlecht. Munich: Lichtenberg, 1970. Brian Thylor, Ed., Perspectives on Paedophilia. London: Batsford, 1981; Fritz Bernard, Pedofifie. Bussum: Aquarius, 1975; Larry L. Constantine, “The Sexual Rights of Children: implications of a Radical Perspective.” In Mark Cook and Glenn Wilson, Eds., Love and Attraction: An International Conference. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1979; Edward Brongersma, Des verfemte Geshlecht. Munich: Lichtenberg, 1970; Tony Duvert, Le ton sac illustre. Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1974; Richard L. Cur-rier. “Juvenile Sexuality in Global Perspective.” In Larry L. Constantine and Floyd M. Mastinson, Eds., Children and Sex: New Findings, New Perspectives. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1981; Tony Duven, L’enfant au masculin. Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1980; Joachim 5. Holunana, Ed., Paedophilie heute. Frankfurt am Main: Foerster, 1980; Theo Sandfort, The Sexual Aspect of Pedophile Relations: The Experience of Twenty-five Boys. Arnsterdam: Pan/Spartacus, 1982; Jeffrey Weeks, Coming Out Homosexual Politia in England Since the 19th Century. London: Quartet, 1978; Parker Rossman, Sexual Experience Between Men and Boys: Exploring the Pederast Underground. New York: Association Press, 1976; Theo Sandfort, The Sexual Aspect of Pedophile Relations: The Experience of Twenty-five Boys. Amsterdam: Pan/Spartacus, 1982; Denrtis Drew and Jonathan Drake, Boys For Sale: A Sociological Study of Boy Prostitution. New York: Brown Book Co., l969; and the works cited in the journal Paidika.
40. Alfred Kinsey, Wardell Pomery and Clyde Martin. Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co., p. 121.
41. Walter B. Pomeroy, “A New Look at Incest.” Penthouse Forum, November, 1976, p.10.